James F. Keenan
James F. Keenan, S.J., is Canisius Professor and Director of the Jesuit Institute and the Presidential Scholars Program at Boston College.
By this author
In my last post, I remarked that the archdiocese of Bombay had started the practice of carbon fasting for its Lenten practice of 2014 and repeated it in 2015. I received in a variety of ways many positive responses to the blog. While I know we are a long way from Lent, still in the wake of Laudato Si,’ we are being asked to change our ways immediately and carbon fasting seems like an exercise that can get us started.
In 2014, the Bombay archdiocese posted on their website a booklet, entitled “40 earth-saving ways to fast this lent.” It is a simple set of reminders to reduce one’s carbon foot-print each year. The archdiocese also made an app available that would text daily very specific practices to follow.
Carbon fasting brings us into the world of an asceticism that’s mindful of our place in our environment. This mindfulness helps to develop, I think, a new humility. Prompted by the Magnificat, I have long defined humility as knowing one’s place in God’s world. Carbon fasting helps us then to develop a 21st century humility, making us more mindful of our place in God’s creation.
In this morning’s Sakaal Times, Pune’s Bishop Thomas Dabre, while promoting Pope Francis’s encyclical, Laudato Si’, added that his diocese would promote greater austerity and sustainability measures across Pune.
His response caught the general reaction of Catholics here in India. In fact all the major newspapers, The Times of India, The Indian Express, and The Sakaal Times covered the encyclical’s launch favorably. Interestingly the only dissenting voice reported in the newspapers was Jeb Bush’s!
Indian Catholics already recognize the need to respond to climate change. For instance, Sr. Julia George, SSPS, a lawyer who advocates for women domestic workers told me that women bear the brunt of environmental challenges in India. In rural and urban areas, women are the ones who need to find and carry the water, for instance, that is needed for their families or for those for whom they work. As the environment worsens, so does the plight of women throughout India.
Sr. Nameeta, OCV, a physician from Mumbai, asks, "Can we sing a Canticle of Praise to the Lord, when we wound Mother Earth everyday? This is an enigma. The encyclical exposes our hypocrisy." Like other Catholics, she believes deeply that the time for the encyclical is now.
I arrived in Asia on June 3rd for Lucas Chan’s memorial and burial. I left Hong Kong on the 10th, saying farewell to that city, but not to my friend who was born and raised there.
I arrived in Pune (the Indian spelling of what the English called Poona until Indian Independence in 1947) by the invitation of one other of my doctoral students, John Karuvelil, S.J.
Pune is the nation’s center of higher education, commonly referred to as, the “Oxford of the East.”
In 1942 the Jesuits opened its residence, De Nobili College (DNC), for the formation of Jesuit scholastics. By 1955, the Pontifical Athenaeum for diocesan seminarians came to the campus where the DNC was, and became the school for all students living on the campus. By 1972 the Athenaeum was renamed Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth.
Today over 850 students are doing graduate degree programs in theology and philosophy at Jnana-Deepa Vidyapeeth. Among its students, over 70 are women, and that group is growing. Moreover,160 Jesuit students, living with 30 other Jesuit faculty and administrators under one roof, make De Nobili College the largest Jesuit community in the world.
I live here with my host John Karuvelil, who is, I think, a perfect representative of what moral theologians in India are doing today.
He finished his dissertation in 2010, on how the Catholic social justice tradition could positively influence the enormous Indian health care industry. Karuvelil emphasized how the tradition and its teachings on the common good, option for the poor, subsidiarity, equity, participation, and solidarity, could guide the enormously developing genetics industry in India a segment of its ever-growing pharmaceutical industry.
I am on a journey. I arrived here at Wah Yan College last night after a 16 hour fairly smooth flight from Chicago, flying over the Artic. I got here with George Greiner from JST and we are accompanying Lucas's brother and sister as they return home here with their brother's ashes for a burial on June 8th, the day after Lucas' 47th birthday.
Last Sunday, I wrote “Grieving at Pentecost.” Now I would like to share with you a part of the homily I gave at Lúcás’ funeral. It’s the first section where I consider his foundational contributions to Biblical ethics. Later I spoke about ways he was a bridge-builder among friends.
In the beginning of each of his two books, Lúcás (Yiu Sing Luke) Chan, S.J. refers to building bridges. He begins his first book, The Ten Commandments and the Beatitudes: Biblical Studies and Ethics for Real Life, with “A schema for bridging biblical studies and Christian ethics” and he introduces his second book, Biblical Ethics in the Twenty-first Century: Developments, Emerging Consensus, and Future Directions, with the overarching notion of “building bridges.”
Lúcás wrote about building bridges because he was a bridge builder. The man whose spiritual and intellectual formation, began in Hong Kong and ended in Milwaukee, had built bridges as he moved to England, Singapore, Cambodia, Macau, the Philippines, the U.S., Ireland, as well as Italy and Germany.
As a moral theologian Lúcás built the bridge between biblical theology and Christian Ethics. Lúcás’ argument was clear and critical: if someone wants to do biblical ethics they need to have the competency of a biblical theologian who can tell us what the scriptural text means and the competency of a moral theologian who knows how to think through the contemporary ethical application of the meaning of the text. As Dan Harrington noted in Lúcás’ first book on the ten commandments and the beatitudes, Lúcás makes the argument, but what is more remarkable, he “performs it.” He takes each of the ten commandments and the eight beatitudes, tells us what each means and how each can be applied by a virtue. For instance, on the second beatitude, “Blessed are they who mourn, for they shall be comforted,” Lúcás shows us that the grief Jesus is addressing is not over what one person has lost, but rather whether one empathizes for another’s loss. The second beatitude follows from and is deeply connected to the first beatitude: the blessed are those mourning for those who are poor in spirit, that is, for those in the community who are struggling. Lúcás writes, “Such is the lot of the disciples of Christ- when our brothers and sisters suffer, we cannot help but mourn.” (171) Then, after describing the meaning of the text, Lúcás proffers solidarity as the contemporary virtuous application of the second beatitude. For this reason, Harrington called Lúcás’ book, “a manifesto for the double competencies of a biblically based ethics.” In America magazine, Harrington called Lúcás’s work, “a milestone.”
On Tuesday morning my best friend Lúcás Chan, S.J., died at the age of 46 of a heart attack. He was the epitome of healthy living and his death is, well, overwhelming for all his friends and family.
I can’t get over that our grieving over Lúcás is going on on the eve of Pentecost. It has made me understand Pentecost in a whole different way these days because I’m preaching on Sunday evening and I’m wondering, how can I preach tomorrow without mentioning that my best friend died?
Last month, Jim Martin, S.J., went with a group of pilgrims to the Holy Land and invited others to be virtual pilgrims with him on the journey. Seeing Martin's virtual pilgrimage brought to mind the very invention of the Stations of the Cross.
On March 2, 1955, 15 year-old Claudette Colvin, was riding a Montgomery Alabama bus and was told by the bus driver to give up her seat for a white woman.
Colvin had just come from class and was studying Negro History month. She and her classmates had been studying figures Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. And they were also talking about all the contemporary injustices of the Jim Crow Laws.
“I drove 9 hours from Ljubljana to Krakow, from Slovenia, through Austria, Slovakia, Hungary and then into Poland. I travelled through five countries and I was stopped at no border. We are now a Europe without borders. Are we European theological ethicists without borders?
With these words, Slovenian Theological Ethicist Roman Globokar opened the conference on “Faith and Morals: Contemporary Challenges: Reorientation of Values; Change of Moral Norms?” last Friday in Krakow.
His words were at once challenging and welcoming. For many years European Catholic theological ethicists met in their own countries or within their own language group, but last year the leaders of Catholic Theological Ethics in the World Church (CTEWC at http://www.catholicethics.com) invited a small representative group of ethicists from across Europe to Berlin to discuss the possibility of reaching beyond the normal and of deepening and strengthening a connection among ethicists in both Eastern and Western Europe.
Ten days ago, Santa Clara University hosted, “Conscience and Catholicism: Rights, Responsibilities, and Institutional Policies,” the brain child of David DeCosse, Director of Campus Ethics at the University’s Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Kristin Heyer of the Religious Studies Department and DeCosse together invited 15 presenters from 7 countries (Argentina, India, Ireland, Japan, Kenya, Philippines, and the US).
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