A chance conversation at an ancient shrine in East Java helped me understand Indonesia’s tradition of religious pluralism—and the Islamic puritanism that now threatens it. I had traveled with a friend to the ruined fourteenth-century temple complex of Panataran, at the foot of the still-active volcano known as Gunung Kelud. Panataran is a remnant of Indonesia’s pre-Islamic past—on its carved walls appear writhing monkey-gods in combat with demons from the Hindu...
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