Below is the position of the American Dietetic Association on vegetarian/vegan diets. The ADA is the main professional association for registered dieticians in the United States. As can be seen, they conclude that a vegetarian/vegan diet is appropriate for all stages of life, including pregnancy, and involves many health benefits.
In addition to health benefits, vegetarian/vegan diets have many positive benefits for animals, ecology (the production of meat and dairy, according to the UN, is reponsible for more greenhouse gas emissions than all forms of transportation combined), world hunger (the production of meat in factory farms is highly inefficient and wasteful of food resources), etc. For a good discussion of these issues, see Sally Kniedel and Sara Kate Kneidel, Veggie Revolution: Smart Choices for a Healthy Body and a Healthy Planet.
Position Statement of the American Dietetic Association
Volume 109, Issue 7, Pages 1266-1282 (July 2009)
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence-based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients, food purchase and preparation, and dietary modifications to meet their needs.
For an article on the ADA statement, see:
For the full ADA position paper, see: